Skip to main content


The following publications were authored or co-authored by a member of the Research Network on Law and Neuroscience (2011-Present):

Network Overview , Knowledge Brief, MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Law and
Neuroscience (2013).

Law & Neuroscience: What, Why, and Where to Begin , MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Law and Neuroscience (2016).

fMRI and Lie Detection , MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Law and Neuroscience (2016).

How Should Justice Policy Treat Young Offenders ,  MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Law and Neuroscience (2017).

G2i Knowledge Brief , MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Law and Neuroscience (2017).

Aono, Darby, Gideon Yaffe, & Hedy Kober,  Neuroscientific evidence in the courtroom: a review, 4 Cogn Res: Princ Implic. 40 (2019)

Bonnie, Richard J. & Elizabeth S. Scott, The Teenage Brain: Adolescent Brain Research and the
Law , 22 Current Dir. Psych. Sci. 158 (2013).

Bonnie, Richard J., Robert L. Johnson, Betty M. Chemers, and Julie Schuck, Editors; Committee on Assessing Juvenile Justice Reform; Committee on Law and Justice; Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; National Research Council,  Reforming Juvenile Justice:  A Developmental Approach, The National Academies Press (2013).

Breiner, Kaitlyn, Anfei Li, Alexandra O. Cohen, Laurence Steinberg,  Richard J. Bonnie, Elizabeth S. Scott, Kim Taylor-Thompson,  Marc D. Rudolph, Jason Chein, Jennifer A. Richeson,  Danielle V. Dellarco,  Damien A. Fair, B. J. Casey, Adriana Galván, Combined effects of peer presence, social cues, and rewards on cognitive control in adolescents, Developmental Psychobiology (2018).

Brown, T. I., Rissman, J., Chow, T. E., Uncapher, M. R., & Wagner, A. D. Differential medial temporal lobe and parietal cortical contributions to real-world autobiographical episodic and autobiographical semantic memory . Scientific Reports (2018).

Brown, Thackery I., M.R. Uncapher; T.E. Chow, J.L. Eberhardt. A.D. Wagner, Cognitive Control, Attention, and the Other Race Effect in Memory , 12 PLOS ONE 1 (2017).

Brown, Thackery I., Gagnon, S. A., Wagner, A.D.,  Stress Disrupts Human Hippocampal-Prefrontal Function during Prospective Spatial Navigation and Hinders Flexible Behavior , Current Biology 30(10) 1821-1833 (2020)

Buckholtz, Joshua W. & David L. Faigman, Promises, Promises for Neuroscience and Law , 24(18) Current Biology (2014).

Buckholtz, Joshua W, Justin W. Martin, Michael T. Treadway, Katherine Jan, David H. Zald, Owen Jones, & René Marois, From Blame to Punishment: Disrupting Prefrontal Cortex Activity Reveals Norm Enforcement Mechanisms , 87 Neuron 1 (2015).

Buckholtz, Joshua W., Valerie F. Reyna, & Christopher Slobogin, A Neuro-Legal Lingua Franca: Bridging Law and Neuroscience on the Issue of Self-Control , Mental Health L. & Policy J. (forthcoming 2016).

Casey, B.J., Kim Taylor-Thompson, Estée Rubien-Thomas, Maria Robbins, & Arielle Baskin-Sommers,  Healthy Development as a Human Right: Insights from Developmental Neuroscience for Youth Justice , Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 2020. 16:9.1–9.20,

Casey, BJ & Kristina Caudle, The Teenage Brain: Self Control , 22 Current Dir. Psych. Sci. 82 (2013).

Casey, BJ, Healthy Development as a Human Right: Lessons from Developmental Science, 102(4) Neuron 724 (2019).

Cohen, Alexandra O., Kaitlyn Breiner, Laurence Steinberg, Richard J. Bonnie, Elizabeth S. Scott, Kim A. Taylor-Thompson, Marc D. Rudolph, Jason Chein, Jennifer A. Richeson, Aaron S. Heller, Melanie R. Silverman, Danielle V. Dellarco, Damien A. Fair, Adriana Galván, & B. J. Casey, When Is an Adolescent an Adult? Assessing Cognitive Control in Emotional and Nonemotional Contexts , 27(4) Psychological Science 549-562 (2016).

Cohen, Alexandra O., Richard J. Bonnie, Kim Taylor-Thompson, & BJ Casey, When Does a Juvenile Become an Adult? Implications for Law and Policy , 88 Temp. L. Rev. 769 (2016).

Cohen, Alexandra O. & B.J. Casey, Rewiring Juvenile Justice: The Intersection of Developmental Neuroscience and Legal Policy18(2) Trends in Cognitive Sciences 63 (2014).

Cohen, Alexandra O., Danielle V. Dellarco, Kaitlyn Breiner, Chelsea Helion, Aaron S. Heller, Ahrareh Rahdar, Gloria Pedersen, Jason Chein, Jonathan P. Dyke, Adriana Galvan, & BJ Casey, The Impact of Emotional States on Cognitive Control Circuitry and Function , 28(3) Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 446 (2016).

Dawid, Philip, David L. Faigman & Stephen E. Fienberg, Fitting Science Into Legal Contexts: Assessing Effects of Causes or Causes of Effects , 43 Sociological Methods & Research 359 (2014).

Dawid, Philip, David L. Faigman & Stephen E. Fienberg, Authors' Response to Comments, on Fitting Science Into Legal Contexts , 43 Sociological Methods & Research 416 (2014).

Dawid, Philip, David L. Faigman & Stephen E. Fienberg, On the Causes of Effects: Response to Pearl, 44 Sociological Methods & Research 165 (2014).

Dreyfuss, Michael, Kristina Caudle, Andrew T. Drysdale, Natalie E. Johnston, Alexandra O. Cohen, Leah H. Somerville, Adriana Galván, Nim Tottenham, Todd A. Hare, B.J. Casey, Teens Impulsively React rather than Retreat from Threat , Dev. Neurosci. (2014).

Faigman, David L.  The Supreme Court’s Confused Empirical Jurisprudence , Bloomberg BNA (2015).

Faigman, David L., John Monahan & Christopher Slobogin, Group to Individual (G2i) Inference
in Scientific Expert Testimony , 81 U. Chi. L. Rev. 417 (2014).

Faigman, David L., Christopher Slobogin, & John Monahan, Gatekeeping Science: Using the Structure of Scientific Research to Distinguish Between Admissibility and Weight in Expert Testimony , 110 Northwestern University Law Review (2016).

Farah, Martha J., J. Benjamin Hutchinson, Elizabeth A. Phelps & Anthony D. Wagner, Functional MRI-based Lie Detection: Scientific and Societal Challenges , 15(2) Nature Reviews Neuroscience 123 (2014).

Fisher, Carl E., David L. Faigman, & Paul S. Appelbaum, Toward a Jurisprudence of Psychiatric Evidence: Examining the Challenges of Reasoning from Group Data in Psychiatry to Individual Decisions in the Law , U. Miami L. Rev. (2014).

Gagnon, S. A., & Wagner, A. D. Acute stress and episodic memory retrieval: neurobiological mechanisms and behavioral consequences . Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2016).

Gagnon, S.A., Waskom, M., Brown, T. I.,Wagner, A.D., Stress Impairs Episodic Retrieval by Disrupting Hippocampal and Cortical Mechanisms of Remembering , 29(7) Cereb Cortex 2947 (2019)

Ginther, Matthew R., Neuroscience or Neurospeculation? Peer Commentary on Four Articles Examining the Prevalence of Neuroscience in Criminal Cases Around the World , J. L. & Biosciences (2016).

Ginther, Matthew R., Richard J. Bonnie, Morris B. Hoffman, Francis X. Shen, Kenneth W. Simons, Owen D. Jones, & René Marois, Parsing the Behavioral and Brain Mechanisms of Third-Party Punishment , 36 (36) Journal of Neuroscience 9420 (2016).

Ginther, Matthew, Francis Shen, Richard Bonnie, Morris Hoffman, Owen Jones, and Ken Simons, Decoding Guilty Minds, Vanderbilt Law Review (2018).

Ginther, Matthew R., Francis X. Shen, Richard J. Bonnie, Morris B. Hoffman, Owen D. Jones, René Marois, & Kenneth W. Simons, The Language of Mens Rea67(5) Vanderbilt Law Review 3 (2014).

Hoffman, Morris, Nine Neurolaw Predictions , 21 New Criminal L. R. 212 (2018).

Hoffman, Morris, THE PUNISHER'S BRAIN: AN EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF JUDGE AND JURY  (Cambridge University Press, 2014).

Hoffman, Morris, & Frank Krueger,  The Neuroscience of Blame and Punishment , in   Self, Culture and Consciousness: Interdisciplinary Convergences on Knowing and Being  207–23 (Sangeetha Menon et al. eds., 2018).

Hoffman, Morris & Frank Krueger, The Emerging Neuroscience of Third-Party Punishment , TRENDS IN NEUROSCI., 39(8):499-501 (2016).

Hoffman, Morris, Gabriele Bellucci, Sergey Chernyak, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Olga Dal Monte, Kristine Knutson, Jordan Grafman, Frank Krueger, Effective Connectivity of Brain Regions Underlying Third-Party Punishment: functional MRI and granger causality evidence , SOC. NEUROSCI., 12(2):124-134 (2016).

Hoffman, Morris, Frank Krueger, Henrik Walter, Jordan Grafman, An fMRI Investigation of the Effects of Belief in Free Will on Third-Party Punishment , SOC. COGN. & AFFECTIVE NEUROSCI., 9(8):1143-1149 (2014)

Hoffman, Morris, Neuroscience Cannot Answer these Questions: A Response to G. and R. Murrow’s Essay Hypothesizing a Link between Dehumanization, Human Rights Abuses and Public Policy , J. L. & Biosci. 3(1) 167-173) (2015)

Hoffman, Morris, Drug Courts and the Myth of the Addict’s Diseased Brain , FED. SENT. RPTR. 29(4) 207-210 (2017).

Imrey, Peter B. & A. Philip Dawid, A Commentary on Statistical Assessment of Violence Recidivism Risk , 2(1) Statistics and Public Policy (2015).

Jones, Owen D., Anthony Wagner,  Law and Neuroscience: Progress, Promise, and Pitfalls , in The Cognitive Neurosciences (Gazzaniga, Mangun, and Poeppel, eds., 6th edition, 2020)

Jones, Owen D., Jeffrey D. Schall, & Francis X. Shen,  Law and Neuroscience , Aspen Publishers (2nd ed. 2020).

Jones, Owen D., Jeffrey D. Schall, Francis X. Shen, Morris H. Hoffman, and Anthony D. Wagner, Brain Science for Lawyers, Judges, and Litigants (Oxford University Press, 2024) 

Jones, Owen D.,  Keynote: Law and the Brain -- Past, Present, and Future , 48 Arizona State L. J. (2017) (symposium issue).

Jones, Owen D., Keynote: Brain Perspectives on Investor Behavior and Decision-Making Errors , 41 SEATTLE U. L. REV. 241 (2018) (symposium issue: Berle Conference on Investor Time Horizons)

Jones, Owen D., Readying the Legal Community for More Neuroscientific Evidence , The National Law Journal (2016).

Jones, Owen D., Why Behavioral Economics Isn't Better, and How it Could Be , in Research Handbook on Behavioral Law and Economics, J. Teitelbaum & K. Zeiler eds, (forthcoming 2015). 

Jones, Owen D., Richard J. Bonnie, B. J. Casey, Andre Davis, David L. Faigman, Morris Hoffman, Read Montague, Stephen J. Morse, Marcus E. Raichle, Jennifer A. Richeson, Elizabeth Scott, Laurence Steinberg, Kim Taylor-Thompson, Anthony Wagner, and Gideon Yaffe, Law and Neuroscience: Recommendations Submitted to the President's Bioethics Commission , 1(2) Journal of Law and the Biosciences 224 (2014).  

Jones, Owen & Matthew Ginther, Law and Neuroscience, International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2d Edition (2015).

Jones, Owen and Morris Hoffman, Lies, Brains and Courtrooms , 85 U.S.L.W. 904 (2017).

Jones, Owen D., René Marois, Martha J. Farah, & Henry T. Greely, Law and Neuroscience 33, J.
Neurosci. 17624 (2013).

Jones, Owen D., Jeffrey D. Schall, & Francis X. Shen, LAW AND NEUROSCIENCE, Aspen
Publishers (2014).

Jones, Owen D., Jeffrey D. Schall, & Francis X. Shen, LAW AND NEUROSCIENCE TEACHER'S MANUAL, Aspen Publishers (2015).

Jones, Owen D., Anthony D. Wagner, David L. Faigman & Marcus E. Raichle, Neuroscientists
in Court , 14 Nature Rev. Neuro. 730 (2013).

Jones, Owen D., Read Montague & Gideon Yaffe, Detecting Mens Rea in the Brain, 169 U. PA. L. REV. (forthcoming 2020).

Last, Briana S., Gwen M. Lawson, Kaitlyn Breiner, Laurence Steinberg & Martha J. Farah,  Childhood socioeconomic status and executive function in childhood and beyond , 13 PLoS ONE (2018).

Maoz, Uri, Liad Mudrik, Ram Rivlin, Ian Ross, Adam Mamelak, & Gideon Yaffe, On Reporting the Onset of the Intention to Move in SURROUNDING FREE WILL, Alfred R. Mele, ed.,Oxford University Press (Forthcoming).

Maoz, Uri & Gideon Yaffe,  What Does Recent Neuroscience Tell Us About Criminal Responsibility?J Law Biosci (2015).

Morse, Stephen J,  Against the Received Wisdom: Why the Criminal Justice System Should Give Kids a Break , Criminal Law and Philosophy 13 (2020) 

Morse, Stephen J, Neuroexistentialism: Meaning, Morals, and Purpose in the Age of Neuroscience, Oxford University Press, Chapter 18 The Neuroscientific Non-Challenge to Meaning, Morals, and Purpose (2018)

Morse, Stephen J., Actions Speak Louder Than Images: The Use of Neuroscientific Evidence in Criminal Cases , J. L. & Biosciences (2016). 

Morse, Stephen J., Brain Imaging in the Courtroom: The Quest for Legal Relevance , The Neuroethics Blog (2014). Available:

Morse, Stephen J.,  Criminal Law and Common Sense: An Essay on the Perils and Promise of Neuroscience , 99 Marquette L. Rev. 39 (2015).

Morse, Stephen J., Criminal Law and Neuroscience: Present and Future , 65(2) NILQ 243 (2014).

Morse, Stephen J.,  Genetics and Criminal Justice , in The Oxford Handbook of Molecular Psychology, Turhan Canli, ed. (2015).

Morse, Stephen J.,  The Inevitable Mind in the Age of Neuroscience  in Philosophical Foundations of Law and Neuroscience, Dennis Patterson & Michael Pardo, eds. (2016).

Morse, Stephen J.,   Law and Sciences of the Brain/Mind , Oxford Handbook on L. & Reg. of Tech. (forthcoming 2016).

Morse, Stephen J.,   Indispensable Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology: The (Non) Challenge from Neuroscience , in The Evolution of Forensic Psychiatry History, Current Developments, Future Directions, Robert L. Sadoff, ed. (2015).  

Morse, Stephen J.,  Neuroethics: Neurolaw  , Oxford Handbooks Online (2017).

Morse, Stephen J., Neuroprediction: New Technology, Old Problems , 8 Bioethica Forum 128 (2015).

Morse, Stephen J., Neuroscience, Free Will, and Criminal Responsibility , in Free Will and the Brain: Neuroscientific, Philosophical, and Legal Perspectives, Walter Glannon, ed. (2015).

Morse, Stephen J.,  The Neuroscientific Non-Challenge to Meaning, Morals, and Purpose in  Neuroexistentialism: Meaning, Morals, and Purpose in the Age of Neuroscience  333–57 (Gregg D. Caruso & Owen Flanagan eds., 2018).

Morse, Stephen J. and Richard J. Bonnie,  Abolition of the Insanity Defense Violates Due Process , 41(4) J. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & Law. 488 (2013).

Morse, Stephen J. and Adina Roskies, ed. A PRIMER ON CRIMINAL LAW AND NEUROSCIENCE, Oxford University Press (2013).

Morse, Stephen J, The Promise of Neuroscience for Law: hope or hype?, In: The Palgrave Handbook of Philosophy and Public Policy (Boonin eds) 77-96 (2018)

Morse, Stephen J, Brain Overclaim Redux , Minnesota Journal of Law & Inequality 31(2) 509-534 (2013)

Poldrack, Russell A., John Monahan, Peter B. Imrey, Valerie Reyna, Marcus E. Raichle, David Faigman, Joshua W. Buckholtz, Predicting Violent Behavior: What Can Neuroscience Add? 22(2) Trends in Cognitive Sciences 111 (2018)

Powers, Katherine E., Gideon Yaffe, Catherine A. Hartley, Juliet Y. Davidow, Hedy Kober, & Leah H. Somerville,  Consequences for peers differentially bias computations about risk across development , 147 (5) J Exp Psychol Gen 671 (2018)

Rissman, Jesse, Tiffany E. Chow,  Nicco Reggente, & Anthony D. Wagner, Decoding fMRI Signatures of Real-world Autobiographical Memory Retrieval, 28(4)Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 1 (2016).

Rissman, Jesse and Anthony D. Wagner,  Distributed representations in memory: Insights from functional brain imaging63 Annu. Rev. Psychol. 101 (2012).

Rubien-Thomas, E., Berrian, N., M. Rapuano, K. et al.  Uncertain threat is associated with greater impulsive actions and neural dissimilarity to Black versus White faces , 23 Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 944 (2023)

Rudolph, Marc D., Oscar Miranda-Dominguez, Alexandra O. Cohen, Kaitlyn Breiner, Laurence Steinberg, Richard J. Bonnie, Elizabeth S. Scott, Kim A. Taylor-Thompson, Jason Chein, Karla C. Fettich, Jennifer A. Richeson, Danielle V. Dellarco, Adriana Galván, B.J. Casey, Damien A. Fair, At Risk of Being Risky: The Relationship Between “Brain Age” Under Emotional States and Risk Preference , Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience (2017).

Scott, Elizabeth, Richard J. Bonnie, & Laurence Steinberg, Young Adulthood as a Transitional Legal Category: Science, Social Change and Justice Policy , 85 Fordham Law Review 641 (2016).

E. Scott, N. Duell, L. Steinberg, Brain Development, Social Context and Justice Policy, 57 Wash. U. J. L. & Pol.’y 13 (2018).

Scott, Elizabeth, Thomas Grisso, Marsha Levick, & Laurence Steinberg, Juvenile Sentencing Reform in a Constitutional Framework , Temple Law Review 657 (2016).

Shen, Francis X., Law and Neuroscience 2.0 , 48 Ariz. L.J. 1043 (2016).

Shen, Francis X., Neurolegislation: How U.S. Legislators are Using Brain Science , 29 Harv. J. L. & Tech. 495 (2016).     

Shen, Francis X.,  Neuroscientific Evidence as Instant Replay , J. L. & Biosciences (2016).

Shen, Francis X.,  The Overlooked History of Neurolaw  , 85 Fordham L. Rev. 667 (2016).

Shen, Francis X., Synapses and Social Policy: The Legislative Politics of Neurolaw, Stanford Law School Center for Law and the Biosciences (Palo Alto, CA) (2014).

Shen, Francis X. & Dena M. Gromet, Red States, Blue States, and Brain States: Issue Framing, Partisanship, and the Future of Neurolaw in the United States , 658 The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 86 (2015). 

Steinberg, Laurence, AGE OF OPPORTUNITY: LESSIONS FROM THE NEW SCIENCE OF ADOLESCENCE, Eamon Dolan/Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (2014).

Steinberg, Laurence, Adolescent Brain Science and Juvenile Justice Policymaking , 23(4) Psychology Public Policy and Law 410 (2017) 

Steinberg, Laurence, The influence of neuroscience on US Supreme Court decisions about
adolescents’ criminal culpability , 14 Nature Rev. Neuro. 513 (2013).

Steinberg, Laurence, Why We Should Lower the Voting Age to 16, New York Times (Mar. 2, 2018).

Sundby, Christopher & Owen Jones, Neuroscience in the Law, 11(2) SCITECH LAWYER 4 (2015).

Taylor-Thompson, Kim, Minority Rule: Redefining the Age of Criminality , 38 N.Y.U. Rev. Law & Social Change 143 (2014).

Treadway, Michael T., Joshua W. Buckholtz, Justin W. Martin, Katharine Jan, Christopher L. Asplund, Matthew R. Ginther, Owen D. Jones & René Marois, Corticolimbic Gating of Emotion-Driven Punishment , Nature Neuroscience (2014).

Uncapher, Melina R., J. Tyler Boyd-Meredith, Tiffany E. Chow, Jesse Rissman, & Anthony D. Wagner, Goal-Directed Modulation of Neural Memory Patterns: Implications for fMRI-Based Memory Detection , 35(22) Journal of Neuroscience 8531 (2015).

Vilares, Iris, Michael Wesley, Woo-Young Ahn, Richard J. Bonnie, Morris B. Hoffman, Owen D. Jones, Stephen J. Morse, Gideon Yaffe, Terry Lohrenz, & Read Montague,  Predicting the Knowledge-Recklessness Distinction in the Human BrainProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016).

Yaffe, Gideon, & Uri Maoz, Cognitive Neuroscience and Criminal Responsibility in COGNITIVE
NEUROSCIENCE: THE BIOLOGY OF THE MIND, Michael Gazzaniga, et al., eds, Norton

Yaffe, Gideon,  Mind-Reading by Brain-Reading and Criminal Responsibility  in Philosophical Foundations of Law and Neuroscience, Dennis Patterson & Michael Pardo, eds. (2016).

Yaffe, Gideon, Neurologic Disorder and Criminal Responsibility in HANDBOOK OF CLINICAL
NEUROLOGY, Vol. 118, 3rd Series (2013).

Yaffe, Gideon, Compromised Addicts , In: Oxford Studies in Agency and Responsibility, Vol 5 191-213 (2019)

The following publications were authored or co-authored by a member of the Law and Neuroscience Project (2007-2011):

Aharoni, Eyal, Chadd Funk, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, & Michael Gazzangia, Can Neurological Evidence Help Courts Assess Criminal Responsibility? Lessons from Law and Neuroscience, 1124 ANNALS N.Y. ACAD. OF SCI. 145 (2008).

Aharoni, Eyal, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong & Kent A. Kiehl, Can psychopathic offenders discern moral wrongs? A new look at the moral/conventional distinction, 121J. ABNORM. PSYCHOL. 484 (2012).

Eyal Aharoni, Gina M. Vincent, Carla L. Harenski, Vince D. Calhoun, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Michael S. Gazzaniga, & Kent A. Kiehl, Neuroprediction of Future Rearrest , PNAS (2013).

Belcher, Annabelle & Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Neurolaw , 1 WILEY INTERDISCIPLINARY REVIEWS: COGNITIVE SCIENCE 18 (2010).

Brown, Teneille & Emily Murphy, Through A Scanner Darkly: Functional Neuroimaging as Evidence of a Criminal Defendant's Past Mental States , 62 STAN. L. REV. 1119 (2010).

Buckholtz, Joshua W.,  Christopher L. Asplund, Paul E. Dux, David H. Zald, John C. Gore, Owen D. Jones, and René Marois, The Neural Correlates of Third Party Punishment , 60 Neuron 930 (2008).

Buckholtz, Joshua W. & René Marois, The Roots of Modern Justice: Cognitive and Neural Foundations of Social Norms and their Enforcement , 15 Nature Neuroscience 5 (2012).

Bunge, Silvia A. & Sarah E. Munro, Trends In Research On Cognitive And Brain Development, TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES (Forthcoming).

Faigman, David, Evidentiary Incommensurability , 75 BROOKLYN L. REV. 1115 (2010).

Farah, Martha J., M. Elizabeth Smith, Cyrena Gawuga, Dennis Lindsell, & Dean Foster, Brain Imaging and Brain Privacy: A Realistic Concern? 21 JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE 119 (2008).

Gazzaniga, Michael S., The Law and Neuroscience , 60 NEURON 412 (2008).

Gazzaniga, Michael S., Neuroscience and the Correct Level of Explanation For Understanding Mind , 14 TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES 291 (2010).

Gazzaniga, Michael S., Neuroscience In The Courtroom , 304 SCI. AMER. 54 (2011).

Gazzaniga, Michael S., et. al., A JUDGE'S GUIDE TO NEUROSCIENCE: A CONCISE INTRODUCTION, SAGE Center, UC Santa, Barbara (2010). Contents:

  1. Michael S. Gazzaniga, "What Is Cognitive Neuroscience?"
  2. Marcus Raichle, "What Is An fMRI?"
  3. Anthony Wagner, "Can Neuroscience Identify Lies?"
  4. Louis J. Ptacek, "What Is Neurogenetics?"
  5. Howard Fields, "Can Neuroscience Identify Pain?"
  6. Helen Mayberg, "Does Neuroscience Give Us New Insights Into Criminal Responsibility?"
  7. Floyd E. Bloom, "Does Neuroscience Give Us New Insights Into Drug Addiction?"
  8. Kent A. Kiehl, "Can Neuroscience Identify Psychopaths?"
  9. Scott T. Grafton, "Has Neuroscience Already Appeared in the Courtroom?"
  10. Read Montague, "How Is Neuroscience Likely to Impact Law in the Near Future"
  11. Adina Roskies, "How Is Neuroscience Likely to Impact the Law in the Long Run?"

Goodenough, Oliver R., & Micaela Tucker, Law and Cognitive Neuroscience , 6 ANNU. REV. LAW SOC. SCI. 28.1 (2010).

Greely, Henry, Neuroscience and Criminal Justice: Not Responsibility But Treatment , 56 Kan. L. Rev. 1103 (2008).

Greely, Henry, Neuroscience-Based Lie Detection: The Need for Regulation , in USING IMAGING TO IDENTIFY DECEIT: SCIENTIFIC AND ETHICAL QUESTIONS (2009).

Greely, Henry, Neuroscience and Criminal Responsibility  Proving "Can't Help Himself" as a Narrow Bar to Criminal Liability , in LAW & NEUROSCIENCE, CURRENT LEGAL ISSUES 13 (MICHAEL FREEMAN ED. 2011). p. 61.

Greely, Henry, Who Knows What Evil Lurks In The Hearts Of Men? Behavioral Genomics, Neuroscience, Criminal Law, And The Search For Hidden Knowledge , in THE IMPACT OF BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES ON CRIMINAL LAW (N.A. Farahany, ed., 2009) 161-182. 

Greely, Henry, Nita Farahany, & James Coleman, Genetics, Neuroscience, And Criminal Responsibility , in in THE IMPACT OF BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES ON CRIMINAL LAW (N.A. Farahany, ed., 2009) 183-241.

Greely, Henry, & Anthony Wagner, Reference Guide on Neuroscience , in FEDERAL JUDICIAL CENTER REFERENCE MANUAL ON SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE, 3rd. Ed. (2011).

Greene, Joshua D., and Joseph M. Paxton, Patterns Of Neural Activity Associated With Honest And Dishonest Moral Decisions , 106 PNAS 12506 (2009).

Hoffman, Morris, THE PUNISHER'S BRAIN: AN EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF JUDGE AND JURY  (Cambridge University Press, 2014).

Hoffman, Morris, Ten Legal Dissonances , 62 Mercer L. Rev. 989 (2011).

Hoffman, Morris, Evolutionary Jurisprudence: The End Of The Naturalistic Fallacy And The Beginning Of Natural Reform? , in LAW & NEUROSCIENCE, CURRENT LEGAL ISSUES (MICHAEL FREEMAN ED. 2011). p. 483.

Hyman, Steven E., Meditations on Self-Control: Lessons from the Neurobiology of Addiction, in ADDICTION AND SELF CONTROL (NEIL LEVY, ED., FORTHCOMING).


  1. Joshua D. Greene & Jonathan Cohen, "For the Law, Neuroscience Changes Nothing and Everything"
  2. Emily R. Murphy & Henry T. Greely, "What Will Be the Limits of Neuroscience-Based Mindreading in the Law?"
  3. Susan Wolf, "Incidental Findings in Neuroscience Research: A Fundamental Challenge to the Structure of Bioethics and Health Law"

Jones, Owen D., Joshua W. Buckholtz, Jeff Schall, and Rene Marois, Brain Imaging For Legal Thinkers: A Guide For the Perplexed , 2009 Stan. Tech. L. Rev. 5 (2009). Reprinted in: LAW & NEUROSCIENCE, CURRENT LEGAL ISSUES (MICHAEL FREEMAN ED. 2011).

Jones, Owen & Francis Shen, Law and Neuroscience in the United States , in INTERNATIONAL NEUROLAW - A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS (Tade Spranger, ed. 2011). p. 349.

Joshi, Swapna, S. Karthikeyan, B.S. Manjunath, Scott Grafton, & Kent A. Kiehl, Anatomical Parts-Based Regression Using Non-Negative Matrix Factorization , Paper presented at Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition conference (2011).


  1. Kent A. Kiehl, "Introduction"
  2. Adelle Forth, "Assessment of Psychopathy: The Hare Psychopathy Checklist Measures"
  3. Katherine Fowler, "Alternatives to the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R)"
  4. Michael Koenigs, "The Decision-Making Impairment In Psychopathy: Psychological And Neurobiological Mechanisms"
  5. Jana Schaich Borg, "Do Psychopaths Make Moral Judgments?"
  6. Kent A. Kiehl, "Functional Imaging of Psychopaths"
  7. Marina Boccardi, "Neuroscience of Psychopathy: Structural Imaging"
  8. E. Viding, "Quantitative Genetic Studies Of Psychopathic Traits In Minors: Review And Implications For The Law"
  9. Irwin Waldman, "The Search for Genes and Environments That Underlie Psychopathy and Antisocial Behavior: Quantitative and Molecular Genetic Approaches"
  10. Michael Caldwell, "Treatment of Adolescents with Psychopathic Features"
  11. Marnie Rice, "Psychopathy and Violent Recidivism"
  12. John Edens, "Taking Psychopathy Measures "Out of the Lab" and into the Legal System: Some Practical Concerns"
  13. Paul Litton, "Criminal Responsibility and Psychopathy"
  14. Samuel Pillsbury, "Why Psychopaths are Responsible"
  15. Stephen Morse, "Preventive Detention of Psychopaths and Dangerous Offenders"
  16. Michael Corrado, "Some Notes on Preventative Detention and Psychopathy"
  17. Eric Luna, "Psychopathy and Sentencing"

Kiehl, Kent A., Without Morals: The Cognitive Neuroscience of Criminal Psychopaths , in MORAL PSYCHOLOGY, VOL. 3: THE NEUROSCIENCE OF MORALITY (MIT Press, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Ed., 2008). p. 119.

Kiehl, Kent A. & Morris Hoffman, The Criminal Psychopath: History, Neuroscience, Treatment, and Economics , 51 Jurimetrics 4 (2011).

MacArthur Foundation Law & Neuroscience Project, Law and Neuroscience Bibliography, /bibliography.php (2010).

Moore, Michael S., Intention as a Marker of Moral Responsibility and Legal Liability, in THE PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CRIMINAL LAW (ANTONY DUFF AND STUART GREEN, EDS., 2010). p. 179.

Moore, Michael S., Mechanical Brains and Responsible Choices (Forthcoming). 

Moore, Michael S., The Neuroscience of Rational Human Action and Responsibility (Forthcoming) 

Moore, Michael S., Responsible Choices, Desert-Based Legal Institutions, and the Challenges of Contemporary Neuroscience , 29 SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY & POLICY 1 (2011). 


Moore, Michael S., & Heidi Hurd, Blaming the Stupid, Clumsy, Selfish, and Weak: The Culpability of Negligence, CRIMINAL LAW AND PHILOSOPHY. Shortened version to appear in Rowan Cruft, Matt Kramer, and Mark Reiff, eds., Crime, Punishment, and Responsibility (2011).


Morse, Stephen, Actions Speak Louder than Images, Using Imaging to Identify Deceit: Scientific and Ethical Questions , in USING IMAGING TO IDENTIFY DECEIT: SCIENTIFIC AND ETHICAL QUESTIONS (2009). p. 23.

Morse, Stephen, Determinism and the Death of Folk Psychology: Two Challenges to Responsibility from Neuroscience , 9 Minn. J.L. Sci. & Tech. 1 (2008).

Morse, Stephen, The Future of Neuroscientific Evidence, in THE FUTURE OF EVIDENCE: HOW SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY WILL CHANGE THE PRACTICE OF LAW 137 (Carol Henderson & Jules Epstein eds., ABA Publishing: 2011).          

Morse, Stephen, Lost In Translation? An Essay On Law And Neuroscience , in LAW & NEUROSCIENCE, CURRENT LEGAL ISSUES (MICHAEL FREEMAN ED. 2011). p. 529.

Morse, Stephen, Avoiding Irrational NeuroLaw Exuberance: A Plea for Neuromodesty, (2011) 3(2) Law, Innovation and Technology, 209-228



Foreword By Owen D. Jones

Preface By Stephen J. Morse & Adina L. Roskies

Introduction By Stephen J. Morse

1. Neuroscience Basics By Annabelle M. Belcher & Adina L. Roskies

2. Brain Imaging Techniques By Adina L. Roskies

3. Other Neuroscientific Techniques By Adina L. Roskies

4. Admissibility of Neuroscientific Expert Testimony By David L. Faigman

5. Neuroscience, Mind-Reading and the Law By Henry T. (Hank) Greely

6. Criminal Responsibility, Criminal Competence and Criminal Law Prediction By Stephen J. Morse & William T. Newsome

7. Adolescent Culpability and Competence: Implications of Neuroscience for Criminal Justice Adjudication By Barry C. Feld, B.J. Casey & Yasmin L. Hurd

8. The Relevance of the Neuroscience of Addiction to the Criminal Law By Douglas Husak & Emily Murphy

9. The Future of Law and Neuroscience By Stephen J. Morse & Adina L. Roskies



Morse, Stephen, Psychopathy and Criminal Responsibility , 1 Neuroethics 205 (2008).

Morse, Stephen, Vice, Disorder, Conduct and Culpability , 5 PHILOSOPHY, PSYCHIATRY, & PSYCHOLOGY 47 (2008).

Murphy, Emily, Paved with Good Intentions: Sentencing Alternatives from Neuroscience and the
Policy of Problem-Solving Courts , 37 Law & Psychology Rev (2013).


  1. Elizabeth Phelps, "Emotion And The Reliability Of Memory"
  2. Henry L. Roediger, "Confidence And The Reliability Of Memory"
  3. Elizabeth Loftus, "Eye-Witness Memory"
  4. Scott Gronlund, "Line-Up Procedures And Memory"
  5. Lisa E. Hasel, "Confessions And Eyewitness Memory"
  6. Daniel Schacter, "Detecting True Vs. False Memories"
  7. Anthony Wagner, "Episodic Memory and Guilty Knowledge Tests"
  8. Linda J. Demaine, "Effect Of Judicial Instructions To Ignore"
  9. William Hirst, "Jury Setting Effects On Memory"
  10. Adam Kolber, "Memory Dampening"
  11. Anders Sandberg, "Memory Enhancement"
  12. Francis X. Shen, "Monetizing Memory Science: Neuroscience and the Future of PTSD Litigation"
  13. Martin Conway, "Implications and Future Directions"


Nadelhoffer, Thomas, Stephanos Bibas, Scott Grafton, Kent A. Kiehl, Andrew Mansfield, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, & Michael Gazzaniga, Neuroprediction, Violence, and the Law: Setting the Stage , 17 NEUROETHICS 1 (2010).

Phelps, Elizabeth, Lying Outside the Laboratory: The Impact of Imagery and Emotion on the Neural Circuitry of Lie Detection , in USING IMAGING TO IDENTIFY DECEIT: SCIENTIFIC AND ETHICAL QUESTIONS (2009). p. 14.

Raichle, Marc, An Introduction to Functional Brain Imaging in the Context of Lie Detection , in USING IMAGING TO IDENTIFY DECEIT: SCIENTIFIC AND ETHICAL QUESTIONS (2009). p. 3.

Rakoff, Jed, Lie Detection in the Courts: The Vain Search for the Magic Bullet , in USING IMAGING TO IDENTIFY DECEIT: SCIENTIFIC AND ETHICAL QUESTIONS (2009). p. 40.

Rakoff, Jed, Science and the Law: Uncomfortable Bedfellows , 38 SETON HALL LAW REV. 1379 (2008). 

Rissman, Jesse, Hank Greely, and Anthony D. Wagner, Detecting Individual Memories Through The Neural Decoding Of Memory States And Past Experience, 107 PNAS 9849 (2010). 

Robillard, Julie M., & Judy Illes, Neuroscience and Law in the Media: What About Addiction? in ADDICTION NEUROETHICS (2011), Carter, Hall and Illes (Eds)., Elsevier.

Roskies, Adina L., How Does Neuroscience Affect Our Conception Of Volition?, 33 ANN. REV. OF NEUROSCIENCES 33 (2010).

Roskies, Adina L., Neuroimaging and Inferential Distance , 1 NEUROETHICS 19 (2008).

Roskies, Adina L., Response to Sie and Wouters: A Neuroscientific Challenge To Free Will And Responsibility? 12 Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (2008).

Roskies, Adina L., & Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Brain Images as Evidence in the Criminal Law , in LAW AND NEUROSCIENCE: CURRENT LEGAL ISSUES (Oxford Univ. Press, Michael Freeman, Ed., 2010). p. 97.

Saks, Michael J., N.J. Schweitzer, Kent Kiehl & Eyal Aharoni, The Impact of Neuroimages in the Sentencing Phase of Capital Trials, J. EMPIRICAL LEGAL STUDIES (forthcoming 2013).

Schauer, Frederick,  Can Bad Science Be Good Evidence? Lie Detection, Neuroscience and the Mistaken Conflation of Legal and Scientific Norms , 95 CORNELL L.R. 1191 (2010).

Schauer, Frederick,  Neuroscience, Lie-Detection, and the Law , 14 TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES 101 (2010).

Schweitzer, Nicholas J. & Michael J. Saks, Neuroimage Evidence and the Insanity Defense , 29 Behav. Sci. Law 4 (2011).

Schweitzer, Nicholas J., Michael J. Saks, Emily Murphy, Adina Roskies, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, & Lyn M. Gaudet, Neuroimages as Evidence in a Mens Rea Defense: No Impact , PSYCHOLOGY, PUBLIC POLICY, AND THE LAW (2011).

Shannon, Benjamin J., Marcus E. Raichle, Abraham Z. Snyder, Damien A. Fair, Kathryn L. Mills, Dongyang Zhang, Kevin Bache, Vince D. Calhoun, Joel T. Nigg, Bonnie J. Nagel, Alexander A. Stevens, & Kent A. Kiehl, Premotor Functional Connectivity Predicts Impulsivity In Juvenile Offenders , 108 PNAS 27 (2011).

Shen, Francis X. & Dena M. Gromet, Red States, Blue States, and Brain States: Issue Framing, Partisanship, and the Future of Neurolaw in the United States , 658 The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 86 (2015).

Shen, Francis X., Morris B. Hoffman, Owen D. Jones, René Marois & Joshua D. Greene, Sorting Guilty Minds , 86 NYU L. REV. (2011).

Shen, Francis X., The Law and Neuroscience Bibliography: Navigating The Emerging Field , 38 INT. J. LEGAL INFO. 352 (2010). 

Shen, Francis X., & Owen D. Jones, Brain Scans As Evidence: Truths, Proofs, Lies, And Lessons , 62 Mercer L. Rev. (2011).

Shen, Francis X.,  Law and Neuroscience: Possibilities For Prosecutors , 33 CDAA Prosecutor's Brief 17 (2011).

Singh, Ilina, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, & Julian Savulescu, Eds., Bioprediction, Biomarkers, and Bad Behavior: Scientific, Legal, and Ethical Challenges (2013). 

Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter, Neural Lie Detection in Courts, in USING IMAGING TO IDENTIFY DECEIT: SCIENTIFIC AND ETHICAL QUESTIONS (2009).

Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter, Are Addicts Responsible?, in ADDICTION AND SELF CONTROL (NEIL LEVY, ED., FORTHCOMING).

Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter, Et Al., Brain Images as Legal Evidence , 5 EPISTEME 359 (2008).

Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter, & Ken Levy. Insanity Defenses , in John Deigh and David Dolinko, eds. THE OXFORD HANDBOOK OF PHILOSOPHY AND CRIMINAL LAW (2010).


  1. Benjamin Libet, "Do We Have Free Will?"
  2. Adina L. Roskies, "Why Libet's Studies Don't Pose a Threat to Free Will"
  3. Alfred R. Mele, "Libet on Free Will: Readiness Potentials, Decisions, and Awareness"
  4. Susan Pockett and Suzanne Purdy, "Are Voluntary Movements Initiated Preconsciously? The Relationships Between Readiness Potentials, Urges, and Decisions"
  5. William P. Banks and Eve A. Isham, "Do We Really Know What We are Doing? Implications of Reported Time of Decision for Theories of Volition"
  6. Elisabeth Pacherie and Patrick Haggard, "What are Intentions?"
  7. Mark Hallett, "Volition: How Physiology Speaks to the Issue of Responsibility"
  8. John-Dylan Haynes, "Beyond Libet: Long-term Prediction of Free Choices from Neuroimaging Signals"
  9. F. Carota, M. Desmurget, and A. Sirigu, "Forward Modeling Mediates Motor Awareness"
  10. Tashina Graves, Brian Maniscalco, and Hakwan Lau, "Volition and the Function of Consciousness"
  11. Deborah Talmi and Chris D. Frith, "Neuroscience, Free Will, and Responsibility"
  12. Jeffrey P. Ebert and Daniel M. Wegner, "Bending Time to One's Will"
  13. Thalia Wheatley and Christine Looser, "Prospective Codes Fulfilled: A Potential Neural Mechanism of the Will"
  14. Terry Horgan, "The Phenomenology of Agency and the Libet Results"
  15. Thomas Nadelhoffer, "The Threat of Shrinking Agency and Free Will Disillusionism"
  16. Gideon Yaffe, "Libet and the Criminal Law's Voluntary Act Requirement"
  17. Larry Alexander, "Criminal and Moral Responsibility and the Libet Experiments"
  18. Michael S. Moore, "Libet's Challenge(s) to Responsible Agency"
  19. Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, "Lessons from Libet"

Stanley, D.A., Sokol-Hessner, P., Banaji, M.R., & Phelps, E.A. (2011). Implicit race attitudes predict trustworthiness judgments and economic trust decisions. 108 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 7710 (2011). 

Stanley, D.A, Sokol-Hessner, P., Fareri, D.S., Perino, M.T., Delgado, M.R., Banaji, M.R., & Phelps, E.A.  Race and reputation: perceived racial group trustworthiness influences the neural correlates of trust decisions, 367 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Biological Sciences 744 (2012).

Wolf, Susan, Neurolaw: The Big Question, 8 AJOB 21 (2008).

Yaffe, Gideon, Are Addicts Akratic?: Interpreting the Neuroscience of Reward , in ADDICTION AND SELF CONTROL (NEIL LEVY, ED., Oxford, 2013).